Back to Inquiry Page Home Join in Inquiry Page Log in as Inquiry Page MemberInquiry Page short menu bar Inquiry Unit banner Ask Investigate Reflect Discuss CreateInquiry Cycle
  Search other Inquiry UnitsAdd an Inquiry UnitDelete this Inquiry UnitEdit this Inquiry UnitSpin off this Inquiry Unit


How does one use the Dublin Core metadata format to encode a collection of 'zines (as well as a book, a journal article, and a website related to this topic)?

Masha Barabtarlo (barabtar@uiuc.edu) (ready to use)


ASK
Subject Areas
Educational Technology, Information Science

Grade Levels
Undergraduate, Graduate, Continuing, Informal

Unit Keywords
LIS 380, Module 3, Metadata Diversity, Dublin Core, 'zines, fanzines, encoding, alternative media

Rationale of the Unit
Dublin Core is a metadata format designed specifically to encode electronic sources; however, it may also have a wider applicability in terms of various print sources. In Module 2 I explored the possibility of creating a 'zine collection, with its main catalogue on-line so that users all over the country (or the world) could select and request 'zines to borrow. This would require an effective and consistent information retrieval system. With this project, I will try to determine to what degree Dublin Core could be successfully applied to such a collection.

  INVESTIGATE Go to Topgo to top
Background and Resources
ALA Dublin Core website. Retrieved from
http://www.ala.org/alcts/organization/ccs/ccda/tf-tei5.html#dublin on 11/7/01

Buckland, Michael. "Vocabulary as a Central Concept in Library and Information Science." Retrieved from http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~buckland/colisvoc.htm on 11/6/01

Dublin Core website. Retrieved from http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/ 10/23/01

Fidel, Raya. "User-Centered Indexing." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(8), 1994, pp. 572-576.

Library of Congress subject headings. Library of Congress, Subject Cataloging Division. Washington, DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress, 1999.

Milstead, Jessica, and Susan Feldman. "Metadata: Cataloging by Any Other Name. Online (Jan. 1999) Retrieved from
http://www.onlineinc.com/onlinemag/OL1999/milstead1.html on 11/7/01

Rosenfeld, Louis and Peter Morville. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web. Cambridge; Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly and Associates, 1998

Taylor, Arlene. The Organization of Information. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999.




  CREATE Go to Topgo to top
Activities and Open-ended problems
1) Article from a print journal

1 DC.Title: "Zine books"
1 DC.Title.Subtitle: "'Hip' voices or subterranean exegesis?"
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Dodge, Chris
3 DC.Subject: Self-publishing
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Underground press publications
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Book reviews
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: The Book of zines: readings from the fringe, ed. by Chip Rowe. New York: Henry Holt, 1997. ISBN 0-8050-5083-3
3 DC.Subject: The Factsheet five zine reader: the best writing from the underground world of zines, ed. by R. Seth Friedman. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1997. ISBN 0-609-80001-9
3 DC.Subject: A Girl's guide to taking over the world: writings from the girl zine revolution, ed. by Karen Green and Tristan Taormino.
3 DC.Subject: Brent, Bill. Make a Zine! San Francisco, CA: Black Books, 1997. ISBN 0-9637401-4-8
3 DC.Subject: The 1996 zine yearbook, ed. by Jen Angel. San Francisco, CA: J. Angel, 1997.
3 DC.Subject: Duncombe, Stephen. Notes from underground: zines and the politics of alternative culture. London and New York: Verso, 1997. ISBN 1-85984-158-9
3 DC.Subject: Kalmar, Veronika. Start your own zine. New York: Hyperion, 1997. ISBN 0-7868-8217-4
3 DC.Subject: Lopez, Antonio. Zine publisher's distribution handbook and resource guide. Taos, NM: Lost World Communications, 1996.
3 DC.Subject: Zines! vol. 2, ed. by V. Vale. San Francisco, CA: V/Search, 1997. ISBN 0-9650469-2-3

COMMENT: I included the books actually being reviewed in the article as subjects, because if a user were actually looking for commentary on a particular title or author, s/he would probably enter that information in the subject search field. I added the ISBN of each book where possible because this is the most precise way to identify them. In terms of information retrieval, I hope that Dublin Core accommodates partial-field searches (e.g., if someone wants to find reviews of material written by Stephen Duncombe, or other information about him, s/he could enter "Stephen Duncombe" in the subject search field and retrieve metadata for this article--the name would need to be searchable in 'natural language' as well as inverted format). If it did not accommodate partial-field searches, the subject fields would need to be subdivided further; i.e., Subject.Reviewed Book:; Subject.Author of Reviewed Book:; Subject.Place of Publication of Reviewed Book:, etc. This would be extremely unwieldy and confusing.

4 DC.Description.Abstract: Dodge uses the phenomenon of books about making 'zines or anthologies of 'zine writings to muse about the general co-optation of 'zine culture by commercial media. He praises some of the books for reproducing excerpts from 'zines in their original format and for asking difficult questions. He criticizes others as examples of corporate bandwagon-jumping written by people who have had little or no true involvement with underground publishing.
5 DC.Publisher.Journal Title: Counterpoise
5 DC.Publisher.Journal Subtitle: For social responsibilities, liberty and dissent
5 DC.Publisher.Journal Address: 1716 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL 32608-4049
5 DC.Publisher.Journal Website: http://www.civicmediacenter.org/counterpoise/
5 DC.Publisher.Journal Website Scheme: URL
7 DC.Date.Publication: 1997-07-00
8 DC.Type: Journal article
8 DC.Type: Book review
9 DC.Format: Text/plain
10 DC.Identifier: v. 1, no. 3: pp. 7-8
10 DC.Identifier: 1092-0714
10 DC.Identifier.Scheme: ISSN
11 DC.Source.Journal Title: Counterpoise
11 DC.Source.Journal Subtitle: For social responsibilities, liberty and dissent
11 DC.Source: 1092-0714
11 DC.Source.Scheme: ISSN

COMMENT: I realize that I'm repeating information in the Source field that I already listed under Publisher and Identifier. However, according to the main Dublin Core website (http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/ ), "(t)he present resource may be derived from the Source resource in whole or in part. Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system." Therefore, I repeated the title and subtitle of the source in a manner consistent with what I'd done in the Publisher fields, and repeated the ISSN as a "number conforming to a formal identification system."

12 DC.Language: En
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766

COMMENT: For field 13, Relation, I thought about repeating the reviewed books as "reference(s) to a related resource" (per the Dublin Core website definition), but then decided that the books were not, strictly speaking, resources related to the article. In one sense, yes, readers of the article could go to the specific books, read them for themselves, and form their own opinions. However, they are 'primary' sources as opposed to the review, which is 'secondary'; they're not really on the same plane. If I knew of other reviews that covered the same material, that would fit in the Relation field.

15.DC.Rights: Charles Willett, editor


2) Website

1 DC.Title: Grrrl zine network
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Zobl, Elke
2 DC.Creator.Address: elke@grrrlzines.net
2 DC.Creator.Address.Scheme: E-mail
2 DC.Creator.Address: http://grrrlzines.net/
2 DC.Creator.Address.Scheme: URL
3 DC.Subject: E-zines
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Web publishing
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminism-bibliography
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminism-international cooperation
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminism and art
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminism and literature
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminism and music
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminist theory
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Riot grrrl (feminist movement)
3 DC.Subject: 'Zines

COMMENT: Sadly, neither "riot grrrl" nor "'zines" is in the 1999 version of the LCSH (which is what we have here in Undergrad, where I work). However, I think these would probably be the most common search terms used by someone looking for this site, so I include them here.

4 DC.Description.Abstract: "From this site I link feminist zines and resources which are from interest and helpful for feminist zine-readers and writers. I am trying to build up a zine network that will make it easier to find information, zines and ideas which are grrrl related."
4 DC.Description.Abstract.Source: http://grrrlzines.net/about.htm
5 DC.Publisher: Grrrlzines.net
5 DC.Publisher.Address: http://grrrlzines.net/
5 DC.Publisher.Address.Scheme: URL
7 DC.Date.Last Update: 2001-09-27
8 DC.Type: Text/homepage
9 DC.Format: Text/html
10 DC.Identifier: http://grrrlzines.net/
11 DC.Identifier.Scheme: URL
12 DC.Language: En
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
12 DC.Language: Sp
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
12 DC.Language: Po
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
12 DC.Language: Ge
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
12 DC.Language: Fr
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
12 DC.Language: Sw
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
12 DC.Language: Du
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
13 DC.Relation: On third-wave feminism, riot grrrl, grrrl voices
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://www.fish.com/~hale/politics/feminisms/thirdwave.html
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation: The 3rd WWWave
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://www.io.com/~wwwave/
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation: Cybergrrl
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://www.cybergrrl.com/
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation: Surfergrrrls
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://www.sealpress.com/surfergrrrls/
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation: Anonymous girls
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://liquid2k.com/anonymousgirls/
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation: The World's women online: Electronic art networking
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://wwol.is.asu.edu/
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation: Queenbee creations
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://www.olywa.net/queenbee/
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation: Hot rock's film list
13 DC.Relation.Address: http://gurlpages.com/hot-rock/film.html
13 DC.Relation.Address.Scheme: URL

COMMENT: This is only a fraction of the URL links that are featured and described on grrrlzines.net. I tried to choose the ones most similar to the original site in scope and mission--i.e., other websites that provide resources and links to feminist/riot grrrl media. Providing access to "related resources" is an essential component of many websites. For me, this was an unanticipated problem with the structure of Dublin Core. I could probably go on for many, many pages listing all the viable links on this website. This is a lot of work to do by hand. I don't know enough about web design to come up with any concrete solutions to this problem, but I imagine that it should be possible for a webpage author using Dublin Core to extract all viable links from a website electronically and transfer them to the metadata set in the page's header.

14 DC.Coverage: United States
14 DC.Coverage: Canada
14 DC.Coverage: Mexico
14 DC.Coverage: United Kingdom
14 DC.Coverage: Spain
14 DC.Coverage: France
14 DC.Coverage: Germany
14 DC.Coverage: Netherlands
14 DC.Coverage: Sweden
14 DC.Coverage: Portugal
14 DC.Coverage: Brazil
15 DC.Rights: Elke Zobl

3) 'Zine

1 DC.Title: Bikini kill
1 DC.Title.Subtitle: Girl power
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Hanna, Kathleen

COMMENT: The creator's full name is not actually listed anywhere in this 'zine. In fact, the inside front cover attributes the 'zine to all four members of the band Bikini Kill (of whom Kathleen Hanna is only one). However, from reading various additional commentary about this 'zine, I know that Kathleen wrote the majority of the content, so I list her as the creator and will include others as contributors. The Creator field is also problematic in this case because of the band's stated and implied philosophy, which rejects hierarchy and tries to make its projects a group effort. To hold strictly to their mission, perhaps I should have used the group entity 'Bikini Kill' as the creator. However, from the user's standpoint, I think that the vast majority of people who might search for this 'zine by creator would search by Kathleen Hanna's name, because she is widely known as the primary author of the material in the band's 'zines. In keeping with Raya Fidel's concept of user-centered indexing, I base my decision on my understanding of my user group's needs and probable search patterns.

3 DC.Subject: Feminism and art
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminism and literature
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminism and music
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Feminist theory
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Body image in women
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Sexism
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Sexism in communication
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Sexual abuse victims
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH

COMMENT: I know that many people who have experienced sexual abuse prefer the term "survivor" to "victim." I'm going to stick with the LCSH heading here because I want to use controlled vocabulary wherever possible. However, it does make one stop and think about the reasons and decisions behind the formation of LCSH categories.

3 DC.Subject: Punk culture
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Punk rock music
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Arts and revolutions
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Lesbian musicians
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Gender identity in art
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Gender identity in music
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Social networks
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Social justice
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Riot grrrl (feminist movement)
4 DC.Description.Abstract: This 'zine voices the attitudes and concerns of several early members of the riot grrrl movement in Olympia, WA and Washington, DC regarding the sexual exploitation of women (both in the punk-rock microcosm and in the world at large); the need for creative, grass-roots-based, non-hierarchical political action; and a general optimism about music and art as expresive vehicles for previously marginalized female voices.
4 DC.Description.Table of Contents: Martyr complex on the eve of becoming; 0069 (by Tobi Vail); Dork + cool = cool; Burn down the walls that say you can't; My hip friends know it's not hip to be afraid or emotional or needy (by Allison from Wenatchee, WA); Fat oppression and fat liberation: Some basic ideas (by Judith A. Stein, 1980); Brother struggle (by Jed); Tribe 8 statement of purpose (by Tribe 8); Tribe 8 group interview (by Lynn Breedlove, Cat, Lynn Flipper, Mahia, and Leslie); Riot grrrl is... (by Erika); Riot grrrl exists because I exist (by Mary Fondriest); Riot grrrl is... (by Sarah); Riot grrrl press information; Lots of girls get bad reputations; There's something inside of her that no one wants to see; Lame lame so very lame; Here are some of my favorites [arguments made by boys/men discounting feminism and replies]; Teen angels on the road to ruin; True love; Consume-her; Lyrics

COMMENT: It was hard to decide whether to include contributors listed by their first name only. After thinking about it, I decided to go ahead and include them, along with any possible defining characteristics (such as geographical location) that I could find. My reasoning was once again based on my user group. The world of 'zine readership can be pretty small. If a user wants to find a piece that they know their friend Sarah wrote for Bikini Kill #2, they could probably search by that information alone and come up with this 'zine. Also, since so many people who write for 'zines do use only their first name, or a pseudonym, I thought it was unfair to deny them credit based on this decision. If a first name alone is meaningless as a search term for some users, then so be it; having it in there won't really complicate the search for them either. However, it may be the only way that other users have to find certain pieces, and may be quite sufficient for them to determine that they have found what they are looking for. I also decided to list authors (where they are indicated) both here and in the contributors section because listing the author with the titles of individual pieces makes them more meaningful to the user.
5 DC.Publisher: Bikini kill
5 DC.Publisher.Address: P.O. Box 11002, Washington, DC, 20008 (defunct)

COMMENT: I include the address here for historical information only.

6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Vail, Tobi
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Wilcox, Kathi
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Karren, Billy
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Allison (from Wenatchee, WA)
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Breedlove, Lynn
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Cat
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Flipper, Lynn
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Mahia
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Leslie
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Harriet
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Jed
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Stein, Judith A.
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Erika
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Sarah
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Fondriest, Mary
6 DC.Contributor.Musical Band Name: Tribe 8
7 DC.Date.Creation: 1991-10-00
7 DC.Date.Creation: 1980-00-00 ("Fat oppression and fat liberation: some basic ideas" by Judith A. Stein)
8 DC.Type: Fanzine
9 DC.Format: Text/handwritten
9 DC.Format: Text/typewritten
9 DC.Format: Photographs/xeroxed
9 DC.Format: Line drawings/xeroxed
9 DC.Format: Text/reproduction of previously published text

COMMENT: 'Zines have very eclectic formats, which stand out in stark contrast to the high-tech electronic formats that Dublin Core seems primarily intended for. I tried to cover all the formats as consistently as I could here, but I was pretty much making it up as I went along (for instance, I don't know whether 'xeroxed' is a valid descriptor here).

10 DC.Identifier: No. 2
10 DC.Identifier: BikiniKill2/1991
10 DC.Identifier.Scheme: Local identification code

COMMENT: If this were part of 'my' actual 'zine library, I would assign unique identifier codes to each 'zine to facilitate quick identification and organization. I've decided to use the name of the 'zine, issue number, slash, year.

11 DC.Source: FAT Lip Readers Theatre, Berkeley, CA ("Fat oppression and fat liberation: Some basic ideas" by Judith A. Stein)
11 DC.Source.Date: 1980

COMMENT: This is the source for one element of the 'zine, not for the 'zine as a whole. I hope that is clear; I wasn't sure how else to put it, because I didn't want to use the name of the piece as a qualifier--that seemed too awkward.

12 DC.Language: En
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
13 DC.Relation.References: International pop underground convention, Olympia, WA, summer 1991
13 DC.Relation.References: Kill rock stars (record label)
13 DC.Relation.Is Referenced By: http://rebelgirl.simplenet.com/bikinikill.html
13 DC.Relation.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation.Is Referenced By: www.columbia.edu/~rli3/music_html/bikini_kill/documents.html
13 DC.Relation.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation.Is Referenced By: http://gurlpages.com/given22fly/bikinikill.html
13 DC.Relation.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation.Is Referenced By: http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Studios/6831/bikini.htm
13 DC.Relation.Scheme: URL
13 DC.Relation.Is Referenced By: http://www.manifest-angel.com/amanda/kathleen.html
13 DC.Relation.Scheme: URL

COMMENT: Once again, there are many more websites that reference this 'zine than I could possibly list. These happen to be good sites and still active, so I've listed them, but there are many, many more out there.

14 DC.Coverage.Geographic: Olympia, WA, USA
14 DC.Coverage.Geographic: Washington, DC, USA
14 DC.Coverage.Temporal: Spring 1991
14 DC.Coverage.Temporal: Summer 1991
15 DC.Rights: Fat Lip Readers Theatre, Berkeley, CA ("Fat oppression and fat liberation: Some basic ideas" by Judith A. Stein)

COMMENT: I am not including a Rights field for the rest of the 'zine because a) there is no copyright statement for it and b) the idea of copyrighted material seems antithetical to the creators of this 'zine and to much of 'zine culture as a whole, since the main point is interpersonal trade and distribution.

4) 'Zine

1 DC.Title: Lungs
2 DC.Creator.Pseudonym: Cigarettes, Andy
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Ferguson, Chad

COMMENT: The only reason that I am able to include the creator's 'real' name here is that I know him personally. For most other 'zines, I would not be able to do this, which might not be a problem in those cases where the creator has only written under a pseudonym. However, if s/he has written other 'zines under a real name or a different pseudonym, it would be hard for me to link the two entities, and therefore hard for the user to find other material written by the same person using a different name. Here's where authority control would come in handy! For this reason, if this 'zine library ever came into being, I would like to have a national correspondence/advisory board whom I could appeal to with questions like these.

2 DC.Creator.Address: P.O. Box 513, Columbia, MO, 65205
3 DC.Subject: Scrabble (Game)
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Punk rock music
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: College radio stations
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Political participation
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: University towns
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Social networks
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Bicycle theft
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: 'Zine writing
4 DC.Description.Abstract: This 'zine presents a 'slice of life' from the punk rock/underground community of Columbia, MO (a medium-sized college town). It includes several mock-interviews with the creator's friends, some personal vignettes, and instructions about various aspects of grass-roots political action.
4 DC.Description.Table of Contents: Sunday night Scrabble news; Interview #1 Patrick; Interview #2 Tom; Move Forward's wonderful wheat paste; Interview #3 Kali; Bicycle liberation; Interview #4 Sarah & Kathleen
5 DC.Publisher: Andy Cigarettes
5 DC.Publisher.Address: P.O. Box 513, Columbia, MO, 65205
6 DC.Contributor: Patrick Hieger
6 DC.Contributor: Tom Sadler
6 DC.Contributor: Kali Van Hamm
6 DC.Contributor: Sarah Denninghoff
6 DC.Contributor: Kathleen Walton
7 DC.Date.Creation: 2001-05-28
8 DC.Type: Fanzine
9 DC.Format: Text/handwritten
9 DC.Format: Text/typewritten
9 DC.Format: Print drawings/xeroxed
9 DC.Format: Photographs/xeroxed
10 DC.Identifier: No. 1
10 DC.Identifier: Lungs1/2001
10 DC.Identifier.Scheme: Local identification code
11 DC.Source: Please don't feed the bears vegan cookzine ("Move Forward's wonderful wheat paste")
11 DC.Source.Address: P.O. Box 1151, State College, PA 16804-1151
11 DC.Source: Social compost ("Bicycle liberation")

COMMENT: The creator and address of Social Compost are unknown, both to the author and to me.

12 DC.Language: En
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
13 DC.Relation.References: Straint ('zine) by Lane Van Hamm
13 DC.Relation.References: KCOU 88.1 college radio
13 DC.Relation.References: Fat nation ('zine) by Tom Sadler
13 DC.Relation.References: Sparta*Warsaw ('zine) by Kali Van Hamm
13 DC.Relation.References: Please don't feed the bears vegetarian cookszine
13 DC.Relation.References: Social compost ('zine)
14 DC.Coverage.Geographic: Columbia, MO, USA
14 DC.Coverage.Temporal: Spring 2001

5) 'Zine

1 DC.Title: Alien
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Whitney

COMMENT: Again, this is one of those situations in which the author does not include her last name in her 'zine. This greatly complicates searching by the Creator field, although searching by two fields (such as Creator and Title, or Creator and Publisher Address) would probably yield satisfactory results. It would probably not be difficult to find the author's last name, as this is a pretty well-known 'zine. However, then one encounters the dilemma of whether the author left her name off deliberately, and would prefer not to have it publicized, even in a catalogue. This would require securing the author's permission to use her full name for information retrieval purposes. This seems to be a problem that is pretty unique to 'zines, and I'm not sure how Dublin Core could be changed to rectify this, except by insuring the possibility of searching by multiple fields.

2 DC.Creator.Address: P.O. Box 12262, Berkeley, CA, 94712

COMMENT: I don't know whether this address is still valid or not. However, I think it is important to include in order to situate the 'zine geographically.

3 DC.Subject: Mental health
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Mental health--bibliography
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Mental illness
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Mental illness--public opinion
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Mental illness-nutritional aspects
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Depression, mental
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Manic-depressive illness
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Panic disorders
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Anxiety
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Botany--vocational guidance
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Sexual harassment of women
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Actresses--United States
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Farmer, Frances, 1914-1917
4 DC.Description.Abstract: This 'zine deals with various aspects of mental illness, based on the creator's personal experience and research. The 'zine addresses social stigmatization of mental illness, medical and holistic treatments, and the political implications of mental illness as defined by Western society. There are several personal vignettes written by the creator and various contributors, and a biographical sketch of famously mentally-ill actress Frances Farmer.
4 DC.Description.Table of Contents: Healing part one--some ways I've been dealing with these disorders; Healing part two--community involvement; Healing part three--the politics; Personal questions from Riot Grrrl Press; Dear punk boy; Addicted to self-destruction; Unforgettable people in Berkeley (drawings by Scout); My job as a hippie (by Theo Witsell); The cult of assassination on amnesia; Frances Farmer (by Misty); Isn't it a good thing that girls love feminist boys? (by Scout); Stigmatization; Treatment of vaginal infections; Panic disorder; A letter (by Sarah Mossberger); Falling in love; The night I crashed Lookout records... in a ninja suit; Eleven ways to support your 'crazy' friend
5 DC.Publisher: Whitney
5 DC.Publisher.Address: P.O. Box 12262, Berkeley, CA, 94712
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Scout
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Witsell, Theo
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Misty
6 DC.Contributor.Personal Name: Mossberger, Sarah
6 DC.Contributor.Organization Name: Riot Grrrl Press
6 DC.Contributor.Organization Name: Hot Pantz ('zine)
7 DC.Date.Creation: 1997-06-00
8 DC.Type: Fanzine
9 DC.Format: Text/handwritten
9 DC.Format: Text/typewritten
9 DC.Format: Photographs/xeroxed
9 DC.Format: Line drawings/xeroxed
9 DC.Format: Text/reproduction of previously published text
10 DC.Identifier: No. 11
10 DC.Identifier: Alien11/1997
10 DC.Identifier.Scheme: Local identification code
11 DC.Source: Riot Grrrl Press ("Personal questions")
11 DC.Source.Address: 120 State #1510, Olympia, WA, 98501 (defunct)
11 DC.Source: Hot Pantz ("Treatment of vaginal infections")
11 DC.Source.Address: CP 871, Sacc. C, Montreal, Qc., Canada, H21 4L6
12 DC.Language: En
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
13 DC.Relation.References: Contrascience No. 6 ('zine)
13 DC.Relation.References: Tree of Knowledge ('zine)
13 DC.Relation.References: Dendron (newsletter)

COMMENT: The coverage is too wide both geographically and temporally to add the field here.

6) 'Zine

1 DC.Title: Byrum
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Holmquest, Brandon
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Nichols, Ken

COMMENT: I'm entering both authors in the Creator field because they shared responsibility for the content pretty equally. It's nice to be able to do this in Dublin Core; in MARC format there can only be one author in the 100 field.

COMMENT: Although I know the creators' addresses, I am not including them here because they were not printed in the 'zine. This is a general problem with cataloging 'zines that I had not anticipated: on the one hand, I want to foster a network of communication among 'zine writers and readers, which could include contact information; on the other hand, I want to respect the privacy of those who choose not to disclose certain personal information in print. The only way I can see to get around this would be to contact those for whom I have contact information and ask whether they would mind having additional information cataloged.

3 DC.Subject: Grandfathers--death
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Funeral rites and ceremonies
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Bereavement
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Grandparent and child
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Male friendship
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Family reunions
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Transportation, automotive
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
4 DC.Description:Abstract: The two authors, Brandon and Ken, cement their friendship on a road trip from Columbia, MO to LaPorte, IN for Brandon's grandfather's funeral. Brandon describes his feelings of loss and memories of his grandfather, to whom he was closest of all his relatives, and observes his gathered extended family with humor. The story is told twice, from the perspective of each author.
5 DC.Publisher: Brandon Holmquest
6 DC.Contributor.Photographer.Personal Name: Holmquest, Brandon

COMMENT: This is a bit of an awkward construction, but I felt that the photographs were a significant contribution to the 'zine in their own right. I wanted to specify the nature of the contribution in the Contributor field; otherwise, it might be unclear why one of the creators is also listed here.

7 DC.Date.Creation: 2001-06-00
8 DC.Type: Fanzine

COMMENT: This 'zine is not a serial.

9 DC.Format: Text/plain

COMMENT: Unlike most 'zines, this one was typed and formatted on a computer.

9 DC.Format: Photographs/xeroxed
10 DC.Identifier: Byrum00/2001
10 DC.Identifier.Scheme: Local identification code

COMMENT: For my personal identification code, I used "00" to designate the issue number so that it would be clear that this is a single issue, with no more to follow. Many 'zines say "Issue #1" on the cover but are never followed up with a second issue--these I would indicate with a "1" because the intent to make a second issue was there, even if it was never carried out.

12 DC.Language: En
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766
14 DC.Coverage.Geographic: Columbia, MO, USA
14 DC.Coverage.Geographic: Bloomington, IL, USA
14 DC.Coverage.Geographic: LaPorte, IN, USA
14 DC.Coverage.Geographic: Urbana, IL, USA
14 DC.Coverage.Temporal: May 2001

7) Book

1 DC.Title: Hard Love
2 DC.Creator.Personal Name: Wittlinger, Ellen
3 DC.Subject: Authorship--Fiction
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Underground press publications--Fiction
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Divorce--Fiction
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Identity--Fiction
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH
3 DC.Subject: Fanzines--Fiction
3 DC.Subject.Scheme: LCSH

continued in the Discuss section below


  DISCUSS Go to Topgo to top
Dialogues, Discussions, and Presentations
Continued from Create section above.

COMMENT: Almost all of these subject headings were taken directly from FirstSearch--in that sense, I guess books are much easier because so much of the work has already been done for you. I added Fanzines--Fiction after learning that "fanzines" was an LCSH subject heading even though "'zines" wasn't. That makes sense.

4 DC.Description.Abstract: After starting to publish a zine in which he writes his secret feelings about his lonely life and his parents' divorce, sixteen-year-old John meets an unusual girl and begins to develop a healthier personality.
4 DC.Description.Abstract.Source: FirstSearch
5 DC.Publisher: Aladdin paperbacks
5 DC.Publisher.Address: 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020
7 DC.Date.First Publication: 1999-00-00
7 DC.Date.Current Publication: 2001-00-00

COMMENT: This book first came out in hardcover in 1999. I wasn't quite sure how to word it... maybe "original publication" would be better. And "current" would have to be understood as indicating the actual book that I'm describing here, rather than the most recent publication, for example.

8 DC.Type: Text/monograph
9 DC.Format: Text/plain
10 DC.Identifier: 068984154X
10 DC.Identifier.Scheme: ISBN
12 DC.Language: En
12 DC.Language.Scheme: RFC 1766

COMMENT: If I hadn't mentioned it before, I got the language scheme (RFC 1766) from the Dublin Core website.

15 DC.Rights: Copyright Aladdin Paperbacks (division of Simon & Schuster), 2001



DISCUSSION:
I have discussed this project in a general way with several classmates, including Misti Gerber and Amy Poague. It was pretty difficult to get into specifics because so much depends upon detailed examination of the individual sources. I did learn a lot from Karen Fischer's Dublin Core project, which Melissa had forwarded to me, and I incorporated much of the structure here (for example, using "scheme" after many of the DC tags to explain them) from that project.

Melissa also suggested that I consider Dublin Core in relation to another metadata format, such as MARC. I wish I had taken Cataloging already so I had more to say about MARC. On the one hand, DC might be more appealing because it can ideally be used by any website designer to describe his/her own creation, while MARC is more esoteric. However, after doing this project, in which I think I physically ran out of room in the Create box, I think that DC is unnecessarily clunky and long. Some of the fields are not especially relevant to print sources, and some are repetitive. In its attempt to be user-friendly (e.g., no mysterious numbers and indicators), DC ends up too open-ended... at least for me. I think it's too much to expect every web-page author/designer to sit down and think deeply about potential user needs and vocabularies, etc. Many will simply not have enough experience or knowledge to predict what sorts of things their users will search by.


  REFLECT Go to Topgo to top
Assessment, Related Questions, and Story of the Unit
If I had to choose the two most difficult items that I tried to encode, the first would (paradoxically) be the website. Although Dublin Core was originally designed to encode metadata for online sources, I had a hard time encapsulating the scope of the website in the 15 DC categories. Perhaps this is partially because of my internet ignorance.

My first problem, which I discussed above in the Create section, was listing all the linked sites in the Relation field. There was simply no feasible way for me to include all of them. And this does not even begin to touch upon the websites that list grrrlzines.net as one of THEIR links. I don't know how I would go about finding these; there must be some way of 'working backward' from a website to other websites that link to it, but I don't know how to do this.

Another problem is that the Dublin Core format does not really reflect the different sections of the website--i.e., the choices of where to go from the main page ("about," "message board," "interviews," "zines," "resources," etc.) and then all the subdivisions of these areas. One possibility might be to use the Description field and treat the different areas of the website rather like a table of contents--essentially, they are the same thing, only the website is not in linear order. However, how would one treat subdivisions of subdivisions? Perhaps one could list something like "resources" in the Description field and underneath it list the subdivisions:

DC.Description.Primary Subdivision: Resources
DC.Description.Secondary Subdivision: Resources on zines
DC.Description.Tertiary Subdivision: Intro
DC.Description.Tertiary Subdivision: Review + resource zines::lists
DC.Description.Tertiary Subdivision: Distros::libraries + infoshops
DC.Description.Secondary Subdivision: Resources on grrrl-women-feminism
DC.Description.Tertiary Subdivision: Third wave feminism
Etc.

This might work. However, even the tertiary subdivisions are subdivided further. Also, I'm not sure how "technologically accurate" the term "subdivision" is--there's probably an internet term for this that I'm not aware of. At any rate, this makes me question how well the linear format of Dublin Core is really suited to the non-linear format of websites. Perhaps there is some way to incorporate hypertext into Dublin Core, which would more closely follow the structure of websites and allow for more accurate descriptions (plus far fewer headaches for the catalogers!).

The second difficult source I encountered were the 'zines themselves, particularly those that had not been written by personal acquaintances of mine (which is the vast majority of 'zines out there). As I noted above in the Create section, one of the difficulties peculiar to 'zines is the frequent lack of last name listings. If one of my goals in cataloging 'zines and making them available to users through a 'zine library is to allow users to track down 'zines or pieces written by old friends, or simply writings that had been meaningful to them many years ago, then the lack of accurate personal documentation could be a problem. As I discussed above, the problem might be obviated to some extent by multiple-field searching, which would allow users to input as much as they could remember about a 'zine or an article in a 'zine (author's first name or pseudonym, geographic location, subject, year, etc). However, in order to address the problem thoroughly, I think it would be necessary to do a lot of research, contacting 'zine authors or their acquaintances through cross-country social networks and getting necessary information, as well as permission to use it in this context. Also, as pointed out by Buckland and by Milstead & Feldman, it would be imperative to implement a system of cross-references for variant spellings, etc. Cross-referencing is already built into MARC format to some extent, I believe, through authority files.

Another problem with 'zines has to do with subject headings. I looked up the LCSH subject headings for the 'zines because I felt the need for a controlled vocabulary, and because it was sort of fun to try to make the 'zines fit into these rather rigid parameters. However, when I think about it, this seems fairly pointless from a practical standpoint. Would someone looking for a 'zine about road trips really use the search term "transportation--automotive"? Probably not. As noted by Milstead & Feldman, sometimes authors of Dublin Core metadata simply fall back on LCSH because it's out there and widely available, not because it is the most appropriate or thorough authority.

As Michael Buckland notes in "Vocabulary as a Central Concept in Library and Information Science," the use of vocabulary is socially situated, and while some members of my user group might be familiar with LCSH, most will be recreational web-users without means to recognize OR predict LCSH headings. Using myself as a sample user (I think I'm pretty representative because I've done a lot of searching on online 'zine distributors' sites), I think the search terms should use the vocabulary of the 'zine writer, which in turn would be likely to match the vocabulary of the 'zine reader. For some 'zines, such as 'Bikini Kill,' I think it would really help to have the names of specific bands discussed in the 'zine as subject headings: e.g., Bratmobile, Nation of Ulysses, Mecca Normal, Nirvana, Bikini Kill, Heavens to Betsy... etc. Also, I think that geographic names would be helpful, both for 'famous' places such as Olympia, WA and Washington DC in the case of 'Bikini Kill' or Berkeley, CA for 'Alien,' and for fairly obscure places such as Columbia, MO for 'Lungs' and 'Byrum.' 'Zine writers often write about their environment, either the various places they visit when they travel or their hometown/home base. Geographic designations would allow users to search for acquaintances, perhaps people they met on a visit whose names they can't recall, or for old friends/new voices from home. I'm not sure if the DC Subject field would necessarily be the best place for these... it would be good to have a new field or subfield for geographic designations, because they include places mentioned or discussed in the 'zine and are not limited to the place of publication. However, this need is pretty much limited to 'zines; I can't see it being terribly important in any other medium.

Basically, unlike web resources, print 'zines require the cataloger actually to read the content pretty thoroughly in order to extract information relevant to the users. Skimming is not good enough, because often there is fine print... in fact, very fine print, and not-so-fine printing, and messy handwriting, etc. I think this makes it necessary for the cataloger also to BE a user, to be able to put herself 'literally' in the user's shoes. For this, she needs to assume some fluency not simply in "'zine readers' vocabulary," because this is quite varied, but the specific vocabulary of the readers of specific 'zines. She needs to know that in a 'zine devoted to pinball games, the names and locations of the games (including specific gas stations, hotel lobbies, etc.) are significant. She needs to know that in a riot grrrl 'zine from the early 1990s, the bands Heavens to Betsy and Excuse 17 should be cross-referenced with the current band Sleater-Kinney, because the latter is made up of past members of the former. Much of this kind of information is so specific that I would almost want someone from that town, or acquainted with that 'zine writer, to do the cataloging (or at least the search-term selection). This might actually be feasible, especially now with e-mail and the possibility of scanning 'zines into pdf format and sending them as attachments. There could be an online cataloging web-ring, with people e-mailing each other for advice, etc. It would be faster than using the mail, although that also needs to be considered.

For now, at least, I don't think that Dublin Core would be the most appropriate metadata format for a 'zine collection. Too many of the fields are irrelevant and difficult to subdivide in a somewhat elegant and easy-to-understand way. As Milstead & Feldman point out, "most current non-library approaches to the problem [of vocabulary]address the structure of the data rather than its contents, and this represents a severe shortcoming. In other words, they are concerned with what fields are established, but not particularly worried about which terms are put in them." Dublin Core is oriented toward the web, and many of its fields (type, format, source, identifier, etc.) are much more applicable to websites than to 'zines. In 'zines, the structure of the data does not vary much: you might have a long narrative or more of a cut-and-paste, collage-type approach, but that's about the extent of it. However, the content is extremely specific and important. I don't think that DC addresses this richness of content adequately.




I had thought this would be much easier than it turned out to be! I guess I had pictured simply setting down these 15 fields and plugging information into them. Not so! Silly me.

I'm glad I had the chance to evaluate Dublin Core in a hands-on sort of way for a medium which it had probably not been applied to before. It definitely opened my eyes to some of the difficulties specific to cataloging 'zines. I wish I had some sort of grand solution or alternative. But beyond the need for cross-referencing/authority control, multiple-field searching, more specific subject possibilities, and a more streamlined structure, I don't really have any practical suggestions for improvement. Perhaps what I would need would be a completely different metadata format.

Credits & Acknowledgements
Big thanks to Karen Fischer, whose DC structure was incredibly helpful to me, particularly the way she used 'scheme' in various fields to refer back to the preceding one and explain it further.

  If you want to add your comments on this Unit, please login first.


Search other Inquiry UnitsAdd an Inquiry UnitDelete this Inquiry UnitEdit this Inquiry UnitSpin off this Inquiry Unit
Questions or comments? Contact us External link
Copyright 1998-2010, Inquiry Page Version 1.35
594,184 visitors between November 4, 2001 and October 27, 2010 when the website was archived.